Saturday 1 June 2019

Ayrton Senna – My Opinion on What Caused his Crash?, by Ibrar Malik

One of the most fundamental mysteries of the 1994 Formula 1 season was why Ayrton Senna, one of the sport's greatest ever drivers, crash fatally at a relatively easy corner?

To this day, no-one knows for certain why Senna crashed. Many theories of varying credibility have been put forward. My personal view is Senna, desperate to break free from the car behind, carried a bit too much speed into Tamburello the car went slightly offline onto a part of the track known to be extremely bumpy. The ride height was still too low after the safety car so it 'bottomed out'. This also caused the peaky aerodynamics on the Williams to stall resulting in a catastrophic loss of grip made worse by tyres not up to working pressures or temperatures. This view is shared by Damon Hill who drove an identical car to Senna, and Michael Schumacher, who had the clearest view of what started the crash. In my humble opinion, they are the two best people to judge its cause.

 Senna leading Schumacher moments before the crash

The pursuing Schumacher later explained what unfolded at Tamburello on lap 7. "I saw that Senna's car was touching the track at the back quite a lot on the lap before. It was very nervous in that corner, and he nearly lost it. Then on the next time through he did lose it. The car just touched the track with the rear skids, went a bit sideways, and then he just lost it." We know Senna did 188mph through Tamburello on lap 6 and 193mph on lap 7.

We also know from video footage that Senna took a faster but bumpier line. This sent huge sparks flying from the rear of his car - evidence of 'bottoming'. The largest plume appears as he left the third dark strip of resurfaced tarmac in the middle of Tamburello. Throughout qualifying and practice, you can see Senna's car 'bottoming' through Tamburello much more than others. The difference then was, he did not have Schumacher right up behind him, his car was not fat with fuel and he would not have had tyre temperature/pressure issues caused by an Opel Vectra.

In his 2016 autobiography, Hill said he applied greater caution than Senna through Tamburello after the safety car, instead preferring to wait for the optimal heat and temperatures in his tyres. Hill also details the bumps at Tamburello explaining how he took a slower line than Senna to avoid the worst of them. Immediately following Senna's crash Patrick Head, Williams' technical director stated "the car was set up the same as Hill's. The two were identical for springs and settings, but the underside of Hill's car is unmarked". Whereas there were suggestions the floor on Senna's car was heavily worn.

The Williams FW16 bottoming, as indicated by the sparks emanating from the rear of the car

Furthermore, an unnamed driver suggested to Autosport magazine at the time that Tamburello wasn't as easily flat out as people believed. Stating it was much more difficult with the passive suspension than the active ride used in 1993. Admittedly quoting an unnamed driver isn't the greatest source, however, Autosport magazine is known for its credibility. Ex Formula 1 driver Jonathan Palmer said from his own experience of Tamburello "If the car is right, its actually not a real corner: it's flat, foot down, you don't really think about it... But if the car's set up isn't right - which includes cases where the car is bottoming out too much – the picture changes considerably." Also consider that crashes due to driver error on apparently easy flat corners do happen, case in point Kevin Magnussen at Eau Rouge at Spa in 2016.

Alternative reasons why Senna crashed, include a partial/total steering column failure, and a slow puncture from debris from the JJ Lehto/Pedro Lamy startline crash causing the car to bottom out. Or the steering column getting ovaled enough in the bushing to seize in the bushing and prevent the driver from steering all are also highly likely. Tamburello is a book which investigates all these theories and more in great detail to try and resolve this mystery.

The book is available for free and can be downloaded at;

While my book is not about what caused Senna's accident, it is well known that the triple Formula One Champion died believing that Schumacher's Benetton was illegal. If there is any truth behind these accusations, then - out of respect to Senna - that truth must be known.

A new book entitled 1994 – The Untold Story of a Tragic and Controversial F1 Season is a new book, which sheds light on hirtherto unpublished facts and stories regarding that fateful year. It is available from Performance Publishing's website where you can also read a free sample of the book. Alternatively,  an audio book version of 1994: The Untold Story is now available for purchase from the below websites. In fact, you can listen to it for free at or via their initial trial period:

Images courtesy; of Alan Dahl, Alastair Ladd and Martin Zustak


  1. Schucmacher and Hill are not the best people to judge what happened. Don't need to explain why. But comparing Tamburello to Eau Rouge is silly. Eau Rouge-Raidillon is in no way a easy corner and was NOT flat out back then. In fact it wasn't flat out at least well into the early 2000s and possibly later.
    No, he couldn't have carried too much speed through Tamburello. I don't know why people keep perpetuating such absurd claims and it is easy to observe Schumacher taking Tamburello behind Senna with the same speed.
    No, the tires were not cold. And if they were, the car would have showed it on one of the tricky technical parts of the track - the chicanes, Tosa, etc.
    Yes, the cars sparked and bottomed out and it was completely normal. The picture you have up there seems to be Mansell's car and it is sparking too. All cars sparked practically all the time up to 1994. You can see even more sparks at the old Hockenheim races.
    Finally, Senna had done a lot more laps on Imola with passive suspension cars than with active cars.